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Selasa, 23 September 2008

Export Import Basic

1. Common payment terms
2. Method of payment
3. Comparison of various methods of payment
4. Letters of credit
5. Types of letter of credit
6. Guidelines for the beneficiary when reviewing the L/C

1. Common payment terms

Open account: You ship, then forward your shipping documents directly to your buyer and await payment.

C.A.D. (Cash against documents):
You ship then forward your shipping documents to an agent named by your buyer (may be a bank) who pays you when authorized by your buyer.

Sight draft or time draft (Documentary collections):
You ship, then use your bank as agent to forward shipping documents to your buyer through his bank. The buyer's bank must obtain payment/promise of payment from the buyer before releasing shipping documents.

Advised letter of credit:
Before you ship you receive your buyer's bank's written conditional obligation to pay you, usually upon presentation of conforming shipping documents to the buyer's bank after shipment.

Confirmed letter of credit:
Before you ship you receive your buyer's bank's written conditional obligation to pay you, which is further "guaranteed" by a U.S. bank acceptable to you. To be paid you usually present your conforming shipping documents to the U.S. confirming bank.

Cash in advance:
You receive cash from the buyer before shipping

2. Method of payment

3. Comparison of various payment methods
Method Goods Available To Buyer Usual Time Of Payment Risk To Exporter Risk To Importer
Cash In Advance After Payment Before Shipment Very Low Maximum-Relies on exporter to ship goods as orderezd
Letter of Credit
*Unconfirmed (Advised) After Payment When documents are available at shipment Very Low Assured of quantity and also quality at shipment if inspection report is required
Documentary Collection Sight Draft Documents against Payment After Payment On presentation or draft to importer If draft unpaid, goods must be returned or disposed of, usually at loss Assured of quantity, also quality, if goods are inspected before shipment
Documentary Collection Time Draft Documents against Acceptance Before payment On maturity of draft Relies on importer to pay draft Minimal—Can check shipment for quantity and quality before payment
Consignment Before payment, exporter retains title until goods are sold or used After use; inventory and warehousing cost to exporter Substantial risk unless through foreign branch of subsidiary Very Low
Open Account Before payment As agreed Relies on importer to pay account as agreed—complete risk Very Low

4. Letters of credit

A documentary credit is a (conditional) bank undertaking of payment. It is a written undertaking by a bank (issuing bank) given to the seller (beneficiary) at the request, and on the instructions of the buyer (applicant) to pay at sight or at a determinable future date up to a stated sum of money, within a prescribed time limit and against stipulated documents or other conditions. The issuing bank is putting out its credit and good name for the sake of the buyer.

Because the documentary credit is a conditional undertaking, payment is made on behalf of the buyer against documents, which may represent the goods and give the buyer rights to them.

Because the documentary credit is a bank undertaking, the seller can look to the bank for payment, instead of relying upon the ability or willingness of the buyer to pay.

However, because the undertaking is conditional, the seller only has the right to demand payment if he meets all the requirements of the credit. It is, therefore, unwise for the seller to proceed with shipment until he is aware of these requirements and is satisfied he can meet them.

Documentary credits therefore:
Are arrangements by banks for settling international commercial transactions.
Provide a form of security for the parties involved.
Ensure payment, if the terms and conditions of the letter of credit have been fulfilled.
Mean that payment by such means is based on documents only, and not on merchandise or services involved.

5. Types of letter of credit

Merchandise, Commercial, Trade:
The majority of LCs issued are in payment for goods in shipment or current services performed. Payment is normally made against documents for goods shipped. (Article 1&2, UCP 500)

Normally, this type of LC functions like a guarantee. This type of credit can be drawn against only upon performance of service or financial obligation default. It is a definite undertaking of the issuing bank. Similar to commercial LCs, standby's are governed by the International Standby Practices 1998 (ISP98)

A revocable letter of credit may be amended or canceled by the issuing bank at any moment and without prior notice to the beneficiary (Article 6 & 8, UCP 500)

Bears only the obligation of the issuing bank. The beneficiary should look to the credit worthiness of only the issuing bank, and not to any intermediary (Article 9, UCP 500)

Is a credit in which a second obligation is added to the letter of credit by another bank (Article 9, UCP 500)

Payment is at sight, which means that the drafts and documents are honored, if in order, by making payment without delay.

Time, Usance:
The draft honored by accepting it for payment at a future date. Payment is delayed until the maturity of the draft.

Transferable credit:
Can be transferred by the original beneficiary to one or more other parties. It is normally used when the first beneficiary does not supply the merchandise himself, but is a middleman and wants to transfer all or part of his rights to the actual supplier (Article 48, UCP 500).

6. Guidelines for the beneficiary when reviewing LC

Be Sure to Verify:
Correct name and address
Sufficient credit amount
Documents required are obtainable and according to terms of sale
Points of shipment and destination are correct
Insurance coverage requirements are obtainable and according to terms of sale
Shipping date allows sufficient time to dispatch goods
Expiration date allows sufficient time for presentation of draft and documents
Description of goods is correct and simply stated.

Original Source :

Getting Started in Imports and Exports


Businesses of all sizes become involved in importing and exporting for a variety of reasons. Whether you want to increase your sales abroad, import a new product to sell in the UK, or bring in components for your business; importing and exporting can provide you with a whole new range of products and customers.

Despite its many advantages, importing and exporting can be complicated and expensive; there are many rules, regulations, and situations that need taking into account. Here is a look at some of the most important things to look at when you want to start importing and/or exporting.

Are Your Products Suitable?

The most important thing to look at when you plan importing or exporting is whether the products you are moving are able to be imported (either to the UK, or to the country you are exporting to).

Although most products are suitable for import and export, a number of products are restricted in the UK; including some foods, some flowers, plants or seeds, some types of electronic equipment and certain types of art and antiques are also restricted.), and each country will have a different list of restricted products. You should always find out as soon as possible if the product you wish to move is restricted.

A number of items will require a licence from the Department of Trade and Industry’s (DTI) Import Licensing Branch to be imported legally.

Will Your Products Work?

A crucial element of importing or exporting is knowing that the product will work. If you import an electrical item, will it need a new plug or adaptor to run? Is it compatible with other UK accessories and products? Are the instructions and product details in the right language? Some countries and products require readable instructions by law.

E.g.: Company X import a Games Console / Computer from Japan to sell in the UK and export to France. They will need an expensive converter to allow it to run on a UK plug socket, and a different converter to allow it to run on a French plug socket. They will also be unable to use UK/French games or accessories, leaving their customers with only Japanese instructions and Japanese language games.

When importing, do you need to add the cost of modifications or extras to the product price, and will your customers be happy paying for them, particularly if there are no English instructions; or will you be forced to cover their cost?

When exporting, will the buyers be happy paying for the extras, or will they expect you to pay for them? Are they aware that the product may be unusable without them?

Export and Import Regulations and Taxes

Regulations and Taxes

(i) Duties and VAT

It is vital to ensure that you pay the correct duties and VAT on all products that you import. There are number of different excise duties (E.g.: Alcohol or Tobacco duty) that apply to goods, and you need to be sure that you are paying the correct rates.

In the majority of cases, you do not need to charge duty or VAT on exports. You must have official or commercial evidence of non-EU exports to not charge VAT. The rules are different depending on the product and whether it is being exported in or out of the EU. Before you start exporting, you must make sure that you are fully aware of any duty or VAT you need to pay when exporting.

As small businesses may not be VAT registered, the rules will vary depending on the product, you should be certain to clarify the duty or VAT you will need to pay, and how this will change if you register for VAT in the near future.

Depending on the amount you import and export, some business will be entitled to claim back some of the duty or VAT payments that you make. A number of businesses are also entitled to delay payment of duties (mainly for goods imported from outside the EU).

(ii) Customs Entries

If you are importing from outside of the EU or from special EU territories (including the Canary Islands and the Channel Islands), then the goods you bring in will almost always need to be entered and declared to Customs and Excise as they arrive (Either yourself or by an approved agent).

The vast majority of exports outside of the EU or to special EU territories also need to be declared to Customs and Excise as they leave the country.

If you are importing or exporting from within the EU, then a customs declaration is not usually necessary. Although if you are VAT registered, and your EU imports or exports exceed a set amount (currently £233,000 a year) you will need to fill in a supplementary declaration form each month.

(iii) Training

The exact details of import and export regulations are long and complicated, one way to help improve your businesses ability is to undertake import/export training. This will help you (or a chosen employee) to understand in more detail the rules and regulations regarding the products you move.

This will help to ensure that you pay all necessary duty, and are able to claim back all the money you may be entitled to. The cost of training can be quite high, but if your business is looking at importing or exporting in the long term, then the cost will usually be more than worth it.

The government offers some basic training and education in importing and exporting. More information can be found at the HMCE Customs and Excise website.

Payments and Insurance


(i) Currency

It is important to remember that when you import or export goods, you may be required to pay (or accept payment) in a number of currencies. You need to arrange with the supplier or buyer in advance who will bear the costs of exchanging the currency (E.g.: From Euros to Pounds); this can affect the costs a considerable amount and may need some negotiation to find the fairest option.

In most cases the buyer (importer) will pay the currency conversion charges, although it now a lot easier for payment to be converted as it enters the bank account (particularly with Euro payments).

(ii) Payment methods

Open Account (OA)

An open account is where you credit check the buyer, and organise an appropriate credit limit and credit period for payment. When you ship the goods, the payment is due a set number of days after.

This type of payment method is normally used only in strong or long-term business relationships, where you can be sure that the buyer will pay.

This type of payment is preferable to small businesses when importing, helping you keep positive cash flow. It is however much more preferable to have payment in advance when exporting.

Documentary Collection (DP, DA)

This where the exporter/seller sends a number of documents to the customer’s bank; when the customer pays in full, the bank gives them the import and release documents (DP).

In some cases, the customer will sign a ‘bill of exchange’, which sets out a specific number of days to pay (E.g.: 90 days after collection). When the customer signs the bill, they will receive the import and release documents (DA).

This is an effective method of payment for small businesses, as it helps provide security for both the buyer and seller. You must be sure however, if allowing a number of days to pay, that the customer is reliable and creditworthy. Otherwise you may be left needing to claim in court to retrieve your money, which is especially difficult with foreign companies.

Documentary Letter of Credit (LC)

This is where the customer’s bank provides a ‘letter of credit’, which promises to pay the supplier as long as the terms are met (and the bank has the money to pay) (ILC). There s also a ‘confirmed irrevocable letter of credit’ (CILC). This is a promise by a UK (or a large world bank) to pay the supplier, and is even more secure than an ordinary letter of credit.

A letter of credit is the most secure way to be paid, but you must be careful to ensure that all documents related to the sale are correct, as a serious mistake can make the letter of credit worthless.

Payment in Advance

This is the most preferable method of payment for a small business looking to export. It helps keep your cash flow positive, and minimises your risk in exporting. The main drawback is that few buyers will be willing to pay in advance, in case of problems with the order.

One solution is to arrange for part payment in advance. This provides some security that you will be paid, and helps to fund the cost of production and shipping; whilst allowing the buyer to check the quality of the goods before parting with the rest of their money.

Payment in advance is not preferable if you are importing, but if you are left with no other option, be certain to take Goods in Transit Insurance to help cover you against any problems.

Terms Of Delivery

It is essential that all importing or exporting be covered by an effective set of delivery terms. In the event of a late or damaged delivery, the costs to the importer could be huge.

Incoterms are a set of international standard definitions that allow terms to be set without the risk of confusion, even when translated into different languages.

Incoterms help to set out fair compensation rules in the event of a late, damaged, or missing delivery. They can also set out fair payment details once a complete delivery has been made.
More information on Incoterms is available at the International Chamber of Commerce Incoterms website.


One way to protect your business against a damaged or late delivery is to take out Goods in Transit Insurance. This covers the goods against damage, loss, late delivery or no delivery while in transit, providing cover against the damage that a late delivery can cause to a buyer.

This is particularly important if you are an exporter, as the cost of replacing goods will usually be very high, as well as the cost of the business you may lose because of the problem.

Foreign Market Entry

Having determined the best international markets for your products,
you now need to evaluate the most profitable way to get your products to
potential customers in these markets.
There are several methods of foreign market entry including exporting,
licensing, joint venture and off-shore production. The method you choose
will depend on a variety of factors including the nature of your particular
product or service and the conditions for market penetration which exist in
the foreign target market.
Exporting can be accomplished by selling your product or service
directly to a foreign firm, or indirectly, through the use of an export
intermediary, such as a commissioned agent, an export management or trading
International joint ventures can be a very effective means of market
entry. Joint ventures overseas are often accomplished by licensing or
off-shore production. Licensing involves a contractual agreement whereby
you assign the rights to distribute or manufacture your product or service
to a foreign company. Off-shore production requires either setting up your
own facility or sub-contracting the manufacturing of your product to an
assembly operator.
Licensing and off-shore production are discussed in Chapter 7,
"Strategic Alliances and Foreign Investment Opportunities."


Of the various methods of foreign market entry, exporting is most
commonly used by small businesses. Start-up costs and risks are limited,
and profits can be realized early on.
There are two basic ways to export: direct or indirect. The direct
method requires your company to find a foreign buyer and then make all
arrangements for shipping your products overseas. If this method seems
beyond the scope of your business' in-house capabilities at this time, do
not abandon the idea of exporting. Consider using an export intermediary:

American Cedar, Inc., a Hot Springs, Arkansas, producer of cedar
products reports that 30 percent of its product sales now comes from
exporting: "We displayed our products at a trade show, and an export
management company found us. They helped alleviate the hassles of
exporting directly. Our products are now being distributed throughout the
European Community from a distribution point in France," says American
Cedar President Julian McKinney.


Many small businesses like American Cedar have been exporting
indirectly by using an export intermediary. There are several kinds of
export intermediaries you should consider.

Commissioned agents
Commissioned agents act as "brokers," linking your product or service
with a specific foreign buyer. Generally, the agent or broker will not
fulfill the orders, but rather will pass them to you for your acceptance.
However, they may assist, in some cases, with export logistics such as
packing, shipping and export documentation.

Export Management Companies (EMCs)
EMCs act as your "off-site" export department, representing your
product -- along with the products of other companies -- to prospective
overseas purchasers. The management company looks for business on behalf
of your company and takes care of all aspects of the export transaction.
Hiring an EMC is often a viable option for smaller companies that lack the
time and expertise to break into international markets on their own.
EMCs will often use the letterhead of your company, negotiate export
contracts and then provide after-sales support. EMCs may assist in
arranging export financing for the exporters but they do not generally
assure payment to the manufacturers. Some of the specific functions an EMC
will perform include:

. conducting market research to determine the bestforeign markets
for your products;
. attending trade shows and promoting your productsoverseas;
. assessing proper distribution channels;
. locating foreign representatives and/or distributors;
. arranging export financing;
. handling export logistics, such as preparing invoices,arranging
insurance, customs documentation, etc.; and
. advising on the legal aspects of exporting and othercompliance
matters dealing with domestic and foreign trade regulations.

EMCs usually operate on a commission basis, although some work on a
retainer basis and some take title to the goods they sell, making a profit
on the markup. It is becoming increasingly common for EMCs to take title
to goods.

Export Trading Companies (ETCs)
ETCs perform many of the functions of EMCs. However, they tend to be
demand-driven and transaction-oriented, acting as an agent between the
buyer and seller. Most trading companies source U.S. products for their
overseas buyers. If you offer a product that is competitive and popular
with the ETC buyers, you are likely to get repeat business. Most ETCs will
take title to your goods for export and will pay your company directly.
This arrangement practically eliminates the risks associated with exporting
for the manufacturer.

ETC Cooperatives
ETC cooperatives are United States government-sanctioned co-ops of
companies with similar products who seek to export and gain greater foreign
market share. Many agricultural concerns have benefited from ETC
cooperative exporting, and many associations have sponsored ETC
cooperatives for their member companies. The National Machine Tool
Builders' Association, the Outdoor Power Equipment Institute and the
National Association of Energy Service Companies are a few examples of
associations with ETC co-ops. Check with your particular trade association
for further information.

The Export Trading Company Act of 1982
This legislation encourages the use and formation of EMCs/ETCs by
changing the antitrust and banking environments under which these companies
operate. The Act increases access to export financing by permitting bank
holding companies to invest in ETCs and reduces restrictions on trade
finance provided by financial institutions. Under the Act, banks are
allowed to make equity investments in qualified ETCs.

Foreign Trading Companies
Some of the world's largest trading companies are located outside the
United States. They can often be a source of export opportunity. U.S. &
Foreign Commercial Service (US&FCS) representatives in embassies around the
world can tell you more about trading companies located in a given foreign

Exporting through an Intermediary -- Factors to Consider
Working with an EMC/ETC makes sense for many small businesses. The
right relationship, if structured properly, can bring enormous benefits to
the manufacturer, but no business relationship is without its potential
drawbacks. The manufacturer should carefully weigh the pros and cons
before entering into a contract with an EMC/ETC. Some advantages include:

. Your product gains exposure in international markets --with
little or no commitment of staff and resources from your company.
. The EMC/ETC's years of experience and well-establishednetwork of
contacts may help you to gain faster access to international markets than
you could through establishing a relationship with a foreign-based partner.

. Using an intermediary lowers or eliminates your exportstart-up
costs, and, therefore, the risks associated with exporting. You can
negotiate your contract with an EMC so that you pay nothing until the first
order is received.
. Your intermediary will guide you through the exportprocess
step-by-step. Over time, you will develop your own export skills.

Some disadvantages of exporting through an intermediary include:
. You lose some control over the way in which yourproduct is
marketed and serviced. Your company's image and name are at stake. You
will want to incorporate any concerns you may have into your contract, and
you will want to monitor closely the activities and progress of your
. You may lose part of your export-sales profit margin
bydiscounting your price to an intermediary. However, you may find that
the economies of scale realized through increased production offset this
. Using an intermediary can result in a higher pricebeing passed on
to the overseas buyer or end-user. This may or may not affect your
competitive position in the market. The issue of pricing should be
addressed at the outset.

Export Merchants/Export Agents
Export merchants and agents will purchase and then re-package products
for export, assuming all risks and selling to their own customers. This
export intermediary option should be considered carefully, as your company
could run the risk of losing control over your product's pricing and
marketing in overseas markets.

Piggyback Exporting
Allowing another company, which already has an export distribution
system in place, to sell your company's product in addition to its own is
called "piggyback" exporting.
Piggyback exporting has several advantages. This arrangement can help
you gain immediate foreign market access. Also, all the requisite
logistics associated with selling abroad are borne by the exporting
company. Oklahoma-based DP Manufacturing's winches were attached to
another product and sold abroad by another company. DP Manufacturing now
handles its own exports and reports that 15 percent of its sales comes from
international markets.

How to Find Export Intermediaries
Small businesses often report that intermediaries find them -- at
trade fairs and through trade journals where their products have been
advertised -- so it can often pay to get the word out that you are
interested in exporting.
One way to begin your search for a U.S.-based export intermediary is
in the Yellow Pages of your local phone directory. In just a few initial
phone calls, you should be able to determine whether indirect exporting is
an option you want to pursue further.
The National Association of Export Companies (NEXCO) and the National
Federation of Export Associations (NFEA) are two associations that can
assist in your efforts to find export intermediaries. The Directory of
Leading Export Management Companies is another useful source (see Part II,
The ExporterÕs Directory).
DOC's Office of Export Trading Company Affairs (OETCA) can also assist
in providing information on how to locate ETCs and EMCs, as well as ETC
cooperatives in the U.S. The office, under a joint public/private
partnership, compiles the Export Yellow Pages, which provides the names and
addresses of EMCs/ETCs, as well as other export service companies, such as
banks and freight forwarders. Manufacturers, or producers, can also be
listed in the guide free of charge; 50,000 copies are distributed worldwide
annually. Contact your local U.S. Department of Commerce district office
for information on being listed or for a free copy of the directory.
Locating the best export intermediary to represent you overseas is
important. Do your homework before signing an agreement.


While indirect exporting offers many advantages, direct exporting also
has its rewards: although initial outlays and the associated risks are
greater, so too can be the profits.

California exporter Bayley Suit, Inc. reports that 80 percent of its
sales come from exporting. The company president says that "40 percent of
sales come from the Pacific Rim and 40 percent from the UK and Europe. In
just a few years, exports have pushed our gross sales from $1 million to $4

Direct exporting signals a commitment on the part of company
management to fully engage in international trade. It may require that you
dedicate a staff person or even several personnel to support your export
efforts, and company management may have to travel abroad frequently.
Selling directly to an international buyer means that you will have to
handle the logistics of moving the goods overseas. But, as the case of
Ekegard, Inc. reveals, the extra efforts can pay off:

Using agents based in Pakistan and Thailand, Iowa-based Ekegard, Inc.
states that 80 percent of its sales now come from exporting -- quite an
achievement in just three years. According to Ekegard President Janne
Ekstam, "Exporting helps to offset fluctuations in the United States

Different Approaches to Direct Exporting

Sales Representatives/Agents
Like manufacturers' representatives in the United States,
foreign-based representatives or "agents" work on a commission basis to
locate buyers for your product. Your representative most likely will
handle several complementary, but non-competing product lines. An agent
is, generally, a representative with authority to make commitments on
behalf of your firm. Be careful, therefore, about using the terms
interchangeably. Your agreement should specify whether the agent/rep. has
legal authority to obligate the firm.

Foreign distributors, in comparison, purchase merchandise from the
U.S. company and re-sell it at a profit. They maintain an inventory of
your product, which allows the buyer to receive the goods quickly.
Distributors often provide after-sales service to the buyer.
Your agreement with any overseas business partner -- whether a
representative, agent or distributor -- should address whether the
arrangement is exclusive or non-exclusive, the territory to be covered, the
length of the association, and other issues. (See Chapter Four, The Export
Transaction, for additional information on negotiating agent/distributor
Kansas-based Airparts Companies has been extremely successful using
overseas distributors:

"We employ 1,200 distributors worldwide," says Marta E. Maxwell,
president of Airparts Companies, Inc. of Wichita, Kansas. With over $13
million in sales and 38 employees, Maxwell attributes 70 percent of her
sales to exporting.

Finding overseas buyers for your products need not be more difficult
than locating a representative here in the United States. It may require,
however, an investment of time and resources to travel to your target
market to meet face-to-face with prospective partners. One way to
identify those interested in your product is to tap the DOC's
Agent/Distributor Service. This program provides a customized search to
identify agents, distributors and representatives for United States
products based on the foreign companies' examination of the United States
product literature.

"The Commerce Department Agent/Distributor Search located a
distributor for us in India, and we've had a good working relationship for
three years," says Shirley Wright, a representative of the Wisconsin
biotechnology firm Promega. Promega derives more than 30 percent of its
sales from exporting.]

Other sources of leads to find foreign agents and distributors are
trade associations, foreign chambers of commerce in the United States and
American chambers of commerce located in foreign countries.
Many publications can be useful. The Standard Handbook of Industrial
Distributors lists agents and distributors in more than 90 countries. The
Manufacturers' Agents National Association also has a roster of agents in
Europe (see Part II, The Exporter's Directory).

Foreign government buying agents
Foreign government agencies or quasi-governmental agencies are often
responsible for procurement. In some instances, countries require an
in-country agent to access these procurement opportunities. This can often
represent significant export potential for U.S. companies, particularly in
markets where U.S. technology and know-how are valued. Foreign country
commercial attaches in the United States can provide you with the
appropriate in-country procurement office.
Retail Sales
If you produce consumer goods, you may be able to sell directly to a
foreign retailer. You can either hire a sales representative to travel to
your target market with your product literature and samples and call on
retailers, or you can introduce your products to retailers through
direct-mail campaigns. The direct-marketing approach will save commission
fees and travel expenses. You may want to combine trips to your target
markets with exploratory visits to retailers. Such face-to-face meetings
will reinforce your direct marketing.

Direct Sales to End-User
Your product line will determine whether direct sales to the end-user
are a viable option for your company. A manufacturer of medical equipment,
for example, may be able to sell directly to hospitals. Other major
end-users include foreign governments, schools, businesses and individual


Advertise in Trade Journals
Many small businesses report that foreign buyers often find them. An
ad placed in a trade journal or a listing in the DOC's Commercial News USA
can often yield innumerable inquiries from abroad. Commercial News USA is
a catalog-magazine featuring U.S. products and distributed to 125,000
business readers in over 140 countries around the world and to over 650,000
Economic Bulletin Board users in 18 countries. Fees vary with the size of
the listing. Many U.S. companies have had enormous success in locating
buyers through this vehicle:

"When overseas buyers contacted us we were thrilled," says Maryland's
Marine Enterprises Vice President Brenda Dandy, discussing the results of
a listing her company bought in Commercial News USA. Exports now represent
20 percent of Marine Enterprises' sales.

Participate in Catalog and Video/Catalog Exhibitions
Catalog and Video/Catalog exhibitions are another low-cost means of
advertising your product abroad. Your products are introduced to potential
partners at major international trade shows -- and you never have to leave
the United States. For a small fee, the US&FCS officers in embassies show
your catalogs or videos to interested agents, distributors and other
potential buyers.
A number of private sector publications also offer U.S. companies the
opportunity to display their products in catalogs sent abroad. A few
include Johnston International's Export Magazine, The Journal of Commerce
and the Thomas Publishing Company's American Literature Review.

Pursue Trade Leads
Rather than wait for potential foreign customers to contact you,
another option is to search out foreign companies looking for the
particular product you produce. Trade leads from international companies
seeking to buy or represent U.S. products are gathered by US&FCS officers
worldwide and are distributed through the DOC's Economic Bulletin Board.
There is a nominal annual fee and a connect-time charge. The leads also
are published daily in The Journal of Commerce under the heading, "Trade
Opportunities Program" and in other commercial news outlets.
Another source of trade leads is the World Trade Centers (WTC)
Network, where you can advertise your product or service on an electronic
bulletin board transmitted globally.
If your product is agricultural, the U.S. Department of Agriculture
(USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) disseminates trade leads
collected by their 80 overseas offices. These leads may be accessed through
the AgExport FAX polling system, the AgExport Trade Leads Bulletin, The
Journal of Commerce or on several electronic bulletin boards.

Exhibit at Trade Shows
Trade shows also are another means of locating foreign buyers. DOC's
Foreign Buyer Program certifies a certain number of U.S. trade shows each
year. Foreign buyers are actively recruited by DOC commercial officers,
and special services -- such as meeting areas and translators -- are
provided to encourage and facilitate private business discussions.
International trade shows are another excellent way to market your
product abroad. Many U.S. small businesses find that going to a foreign
trade show once just is not enough:

"You have to hang in there," said Allen-Edmonds Shoe Corporation
President John Stollenwerk. "In the beginning, in many countries where we
displayed our products at foreign trade shows, we saw no results. But
gradually people began to take our product, American made shoes, seriously.

We market our shoes as `the world's finest.' That's one way American
companies can compete." Twelve percent of Wisconsin-based Allen-Edmonds
sales are derived from exporting.

Through a certification program DOC also supports about 80
international fairs and exhibitions held in markets worldwide. U.S.
exhibitors receive pre- and post-event assistance. The USDA FAS sponsors
about 15 major shows overseas each year.

Participate in Trade Missions
Participating in overseas trade missions is yet another way to meet
foreign buyers. Public/private trade missions are often organized
cooperatively by federal and state international trade agencies and trade
associations. Arrangements are handled for you so that the process of
meeting prospective partners or buyers is simplified.
Matchmaker Trade Delegations are DOC-sponsored trade missions to
select foreign markets. Your company is matched carefully with potential
agents and distributors interested in your product. Tennessee-based
Shaffield Industries, a futon manufacturer, reaped excellent returns as a
result of a 1991 Matchmaker trade mission to Asia:

"I was especially surprised at the high-level of appointments
scheduled for us during the Matchmaker trade mission. Each was a true
prospect," stated David Goff, comptroller for Shaffield Industries. As a
result of the mission, his company negotiated the sale of three containers
of his product to South Korea and two containers to Taipei.

Being properly prepared for the kinds of inquiries you might encounter
on overseas trade missions is important. The SBA offers pre-mission
training sessions through its district offices and the SCORE program.
Contact your local SBA office for a schedule of upcoming "How to
Participate Profitably in Trade Missions" seminars.

Contact Multilateral Development Banks
In developing countries, large infrastructure projects are often
funded by multilateral development banks such as the World Bank, the
African, Asian, Inter-American Development Banks and the European Bank for
Reconstruction and Development.Multilateral development bank (MDB) projects
often represent extensive opportunities for U.S. small businesses to
compete for project work. DOC estimates that MDB projects could amount to
at least $15 billion dollars in export contracts for United States
One U.S. small business that successfully entered the international
marketplace by bidding on a World Bank project is DSI of Poestenkill, New

"As a result of World Bank loans to the People's Republic of China,
DSI received over $1 million dollars in contracts for laboratory
equipment," reports DSI President Dave Ferguson. Exports now account for
60-70 percent of DSI's business.

Development bank projects can be an excellent way to start exporting.
Many U.S. small business exporters have benefited from large MDB projects
through subcontracting awards from larger corporations.
A list of MDBs is included in Part II, The Exporter's Directory. From
their Washington, D.C. headquarters, many MDBs hold monthly seminars to
acquaint businesses with the MDB procurement process. Additionally, the
DOC's Office of Major Projects can be of assistance in identifying
contracting and subcontracting opportunities.

Once you locate a potential foreign buyer or representative, the next
step is to qualify them by reputation and financial position. First,
obtain as much information as possible from the company itself. Here are
a few sample questions you will want to ask:
. What is the company's history and what are the qualifications and
backgrounds of the principal officers?
. Does the company have adequate trained personnel, facilities,
resources to devote to your business?
. What is their current sales volume?
. What is the size of their inventory?
. How will they market your product (retail, wholesale or direct)?
. Which territories or areas of the country do they cover?
. Do they have other U.S. or foreign clients? Are any of these
clients your competitors? It is important to obtain references from
several current clients.
. What types of customers do they serve?
. Do you publish a catalogue?
. What is their sales force?

When you have this background information and are comfortable about
proceeding, then obtain a credit report about their financial position.
DOC's World Trade Data Reports (WTDRs), available from your local District
ITA Office, are compiled by US&FCS officers. A WTDR can usually provide an
in-depth profile of the prospective company you are investigating.
There are also several commercial services for qualifying potential
partners, such as Dun & Bradstreet's Business Identification Service and
Graydon reports. U.S. banks and their correspondent banks or branches
overseas, and foreign banks located in the United States can provide
specific financial information.
In this chapter we have discussed methods of market entry, how to find
potential foreign buyers and representatives and how to qualify whom you
will be doing business with overseas. Advance market research and
preparation is the best way for a small business to define a potential
export market.
The next question that needs to be explored involves how to accomplish
the business of exporting -- that is, how the deal should be structured,
the topic of, "The Export Transaction."

Source :

Making the Export Decision

Exporting is crucial to America's economic health. Increased exports
mean business growth, and business growth means more jobs. Yet, only a
small percentage of potential exporters take advantage of these
opportunities. It is critical for U.S. businesses to think globally. Your
decision to read this book indicates an interest in exporting. However,
you may have discovered your company is already competing internationally
-- foreign-owned companies are competing with you in your "domestic"
markets. The division between domestic and international markets is
becoming increasingly blurred. Your business cannot ignore international
realities if you intend to maintain your market share and keep pace with
your competitors. Making the export decision requires careful assessment
of the advantages and disadvantages of expanding into new markets. Once
the decision is made to export, an international business plan is
essential. This chapter presents the advantages and disadvantages of
exporting and offers a sample business plan.

Consider some of the specific advantages of exporting.Exporting can
help your business:
. enhance domestic competitiveness
. increase sales and profits
. gain global market share
. reduce dependence on existing markets
. exploit corporate technology and know-how
. extend the sales potential of existing products
. stabilize seasonal market fluctuations
. enhance potential for corporate expansion
. sell excess production capacity
. gain information about foreign competition

In comparison, there are certain disadvantages to exporting.Your
business may be required to:
. develop new promotional material
. subordinate short-term profits to long-term gains
. incur added administrative costs
. allocate personnel for travel
. wait longer for payments
. modify your product or packaging
. apply for additional financing
. obtain special export licenses

These disadvantages may justify a decision to forego exporting at the
present time. For example, if your company's financial situation is weak,
attempting to sell into foreign markets may be ill-timed. On the other
hand, some companies have been successful selling abroad even before they
have made any sales domestically:

Landmark Systems of Vienna, Virginia, had virtually no domestic sales
before it entered the European market. Landmark had developed a software
program for IBM mainframe computers and located an independent distributor
in Europe to represent their product. In their first year, 80 percent of
their sales were attributed to exporting. In their second year, sales
jumped from $100,000 to $1.4 million -- with 70 percent attributable to

As you can see, there are no hard-and-fast rules as to which
businesses should export, and which should not. In the case of Landmark
Systems mentioned above, a foreign distributor produced results before any
significant domestic sales occurred. Landmark Systems' decision to export,
like that of many other small business exporters featured in this guide,
was based on careful planning.

Behind most export success stories is a plan. Whether formally
written down, or sketched out informally at a meeting of your management
team, an international business plan is an essential tool to properly
evaluate all the factors that would affect your company's ability to go

An international business plan should define your company's:
. commitment to international trade;
. export pricing strategy;
. reason for exporting;
. potential export markets and customers;
. methods of foreign market entry;
. exporting costs and projected revenues;
. export financing alternatives;
. legal requirements;
. transportation method; and
. overseas partnership and foreign investmentcapabilities.
Creating an international business plan is important for defining your
company's present status, internal goals and commitment, but is also
required if you plan to seek export financing assistance. Preparing the
plan in advance of making export loan requests from your bank can save time
and money. Completing and analyzing an international business plan helps
you anticipate future goals, assemble facts, identify constraints and
create an action statement. It should also set forth specific objectives,
an implementation timetable and milestones to gauge success.

Source :

Identifying International Markets

To succeed in exporting, you must first identify the most profitable
international markets for your products or services. Without proper
guidance and assistance, however, this process can be time consuming and
costly -- particularly for a small business.
The U.S. federal government, state governments, trade associations,
exporters' associations and foreign governments offer low-cost and easily
accessible resources to simplify and speed your foreign market research.
This chapter describes those resources and how to use them.

Many government programs and staff are dedicated to helping you, the
small business owner, assess whether your product or service is ready to
compete in a foreign market.

The U.S. Small Business Administration
Many new-to-export small firms have found the counseling services
provided by the SBA's Service Corps of Retired Executives (SCORE)
particularly helpful. Through your local SBA District office, you can gain
access to more than 850 SCORE volunteers with experience in international

"Our SCORE counselor is really like a big brother to us and our
company," says Jim Hadzicki, Vice-President of San Diego-based Revolution
Kites, a recreational kite manufacturer. Exports now account for 24
percent of their sales in just three years. "I recently went on a trip to
Tokyo to line up a distributorship. Our SCORE counselor helped me list our
objectives, what I was to do and ask about and even told me what gift I
should take to the Japanese representative," says Hadzicki.

Two other SBA-sponsored programs are available to small businesses
needing management and export advice: Small Business Development Centers
and Small Business Institutes affiliated with colleges and universities
throughout the United States:

Small Business Development Centers (SBDCs) offer counseling, training
and research assistance on all aspects of small business management.
The Small Business Institute (SBI) program provides small business
owners with intensive management counselling from qualified business
students who are supervised by faculty. SBIs provide advice on a wide
range of management challenges facing small businesses -- including finding
the best foreign markets for particular products or services.

The U.S. Department of Commerce
The U.S. Department of Commerce's (DOC) International Trade
Administration (ITA) is a valuable source of advice and information. In
ITA offices throughout the country international trade specialists can help
you locate the best foreign markets for your products. Oklahoma exporter
OK-1 Manufacturing Co. has found the foreign market research available
through the ITA extremely useful:

"The Oklahoma District ITA office prepared a market research study to
determine whether we should export our fitness accessory items to Japan,"
says Sherry Teigen, OK-1 Manufacturing Co. export manager. Today, the
company exports to Japan in addition to 20 other countries. Since it began
exporting, the company staff has grown by 75 and Sherry's husband, OK-1's
President, Roger Teigen, won the 1991 SBA Exporter of the Year award.

District Export Councils (DECs) are another useful ITA-sponsored
resource. The 51 District Export Councils located around the United States
are comprised of 1,800 executives with experience in international trade
who volunteer to help small businesses export. Council members come from
banks, manufacturing companies, law offices, trade associations, state and
local agencies and educational institutions. They draw upon their
experience to encourage, educate, counsel and guide potential, new and
seasoned exporters in their individual marketing needs.

The United States and Foreign Commercial Service (US&FCS) helps U.S.
firms compete more effectively in the global marketplace with trade
specialists in 69 United States cities and 70 countries worldwide. US&FCS
offices provide information on foreign markets, agent/distributor location
services, trade leads and counseling on business opportunities, trade
barriers and prospects abroad.

The United States Department of Agriculture
If you have an agricultural product, you should investigate the U.S.
Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS).
With posts in 80 embassies and consulates worldwide, the FAS can obtain
specific overseas market information for your product. The FAS also
maintains sector specialists in the United States to monitor foreign
markets for specific U.S. agricultural products.
Most state commerce and economic development offices have
international trade specialists to assist you. Many states have trade
offices in overseas markets. Dial Tool and Manufacturing of Franklin Park,
Illinois, found the Illinois State office in Hong Kong very helpful:

After visiting the Illinois State office in Hong Kong, Dial Tool and
Manufacturing President Steve Pagliuzza reports that he was able to sign on
sales reps for his company's metal stamping equipment: "My state office in
Hong Kong gave me several names of potential reps. We eventually signed
them on and are now successfully exporting to Asia, in addition to Europe,
Canada and Mexico. In four years, 15-20 percent of our sales now come from

Port Authorities are a wealth of export information. Although
traditionally associated with transportation services, many port
authorities around the country have expanded their services to provide
export training programs and foreign-marketing research assistance. For
example, the New York-New Jersey Port Authority provides extensive services
to exporters including XPORT, a full-service export trading company.


In addition to government-supported resources, private sector
organizations can also provide invaluable assistance.

Exporters' Associations
World Trade Centers, import-export clubs and organizations such as the
American Association of Exporters and Importers and the Small Business
Exporter's Association can aid in your foreign market research.

Trade Associations
The National Federation of International Trade Associations lists over
150 organizations in the U.S. to help new-to-export small businesses enter
international markets. Many of these associations maintain libraries,
databanks and established relationships with foreign governments to assist
in your exporting efforts.
More than 5,000 trade and professional associations currently operate
in the United States; many actively promote international trade activities
for their members.
The Telecommunications Industry Association is just one association
which leads frequent overseas trade missions and monitors the pulse of
foreign market conditions around the globe. Whatever your product or
service, a trade association probably exists that can help you obtain
information on domestic and foreign markets.
Chambers of Commerce, particularly state chambers, or chambers located
in major industrial areas, often employ international trade specialists who
gather information on markets abroad.


Now that you know where to begin your research, you should next
identify the most profitable foreign markets for your products or services.

You will need to:

. classify your product;
. find countries with the largest and fastest growing markets for
your product;
. determine which foreign markets will be the most penetrable;
. define and narrow those export markets you intend to pursue;
. talk to U.S. customers doing business internationally;
. research export efforts of U.S. competitors.

Classifying your product
The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code is the system by
which the United States government classifies its goods and services.
Knowing the proper code for your product or service can be useful in
collecting and analyzing data available in the United States.
Data originating from outside the United States -- or information
available from international organizations -- are organized under the
Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) system, which may assign
a different code to your product or service.
Another method of classifying products for export is the Harmonized
System (HS). Knowing the HS classification number, the SIC and the SITC
codes for your product is essential to obtaining domestic and international
trade and tariff information. DOC and USDA trade specialists can assist in
identifying the codes for your products. The United States Bureau of the
Census (USBC) can help identify the HS number for your product.

Finding countries with the largest and fastest growing markets for your
At this stage of your research, you should consider where your
domestic competitors are exporting. Trade associations can often provide
data on where companies in a particular industry sector are exporting their
products. The three largest markets for U.S. products are Canada, Japan
and Mexico. Yet these countries may not be the largest markets for your
Three key United States government databases can identify those
countries which represent significant export potential for your product:
SBA's Automated Trade Locator Assistance System (SBAtlas), Foreign Trade
Report FT925 and the U.S. Department of Commerce's National Trade Data Bank
SBA's Automated Trade Locator Assistance System (SBAtlas) is offered
only by the U.S. Small Business Administration and provides current market
information to SBA clients on world markets suitable for their products and
services. This valuable research tool supplies small business exporters
with information about where their products are being bought and sold and
which countries offer the largest markets. The Country Reports detail
products imported and exported by various foreign nations. Data are
supplied by the DOC's USBC and member nations of the United Nations. This
information can be obtained through a SCORE counselor at the SBA District
and Regional Offices and at SBDCs and SBIs. This service is free to
requesting small businesses.
Foreign Trade Report FT925 gives a monthly country-specific breakdown
of imports and exports by SITC number. Available by subscription from the
Government Printing Office, the FT925 can also be obtained through DOC ITA
The National Trade Data Bank (NTDB) contains more than 100,000 U.S.
government documents on export promotion and international economic
information. With the NTDB, you can conduct databank searches on country
and product information. NTDB can be purchased by subscription and used
with a CD-ROM reader, or can be used at Federal libraries throughout the
United States. DOC ITA offices will also conduct specific NTDB searches to
meet your foreign market research needs.
Once you learn which are the largest markets for your products,
determine which are the fastest growing markets. Find out what demographic
patterns and cultural considerations will affect your market penetration.

Several publications provide geographic and demographic statistical
information pertinent to your product: The World Factbook, produced by the
Central Intelligence Agency; World Population, published by DOC's USBC; The
World Bank Atlas, available from the World Bank; and the International
Trade Statistics Yearbook of the United Nations. Volume Two of this U.N.
publication (available at many libraries) lists international demand for
commodities over a five-year period.


Once you have defined and narrowed a few prospective foreign markets
for your product, you will need to examine them in detail. At this stage
you should ask the following questions:

. how does the quality of your product or service compare with that
of goods already available in your target foreign markets?
. is your price competitive in the markets you are considering?
. who are your major customers?

Answering these questions may seem overwhelming at first, but many
resources are available to help you select which foreign markets are most
conducive to selling your product.
The DOC's ITA can link you with specific foreign markets. ITA offices
are part of the US&FCS and communicate directly with FCS officers working
in United States Embassies worldwide.
FCS staff and in-country market research firms produce in-depth
reports on selected products and industries that can answer many of your
questions regarding foreign market penetration.
One small business exporter who regularly uses foreign market
information obtained through the DOC's US&FCS is Fabri-Quilt Inc. of North
Kansas City, Missouri.

According to Fabri-Quilt President Lionel Kunst, "When I decide to
enter a foreign market, the Commerce Department ITA office in Missouri
sends information on my company to the Foreign Commercial Service Officer
in the country where I want to export. They send me back information on
that particular country and even make appointments for me when I decide to
visit the market myself." Of the product line Fabri-Quilt exports, 25
percent of their sales can be attributed to exporting.

You can also order a comparison shopping service report through ITA
district offices. The report is a low-cost way to conduct research without
having to leave the United States.
SBA's and DOC's Export Legal Assistance Network (ELAN) provides new
exporters with answers to their initial legal questions. Local attorneys
volunteer, on a one-time basis, to counsel small businesses to address
their export-related legal questions. These attorneys can address
questions pertaining to contract negotiations, licensing, credit
collections procedures and documentation. There is no charge for this
one-time service, available through SBA or DOC district offices.
Trade Opportunities Program (TOPs) of the DOC can furnish U.S. small
businesses with trade leads from foreign companies that want to buy or
represent their products or services. These trade leads are available in
both electronic or printed form from the DOC. Participating companies must
pay a modest fee to gain access to this service.
Other important issues about the target foreign markets you should
explore are:
. political risk considerations,
. the cultural environment, and
. whether any product modifications, such as packaging or
labelling, will make the product more "exportable."

One U.S. poultry producer discovered it had to modify its product to
make it more palatable to Japanese consumers:

Atlanta-based Gold Kist Inc. found that, to be successful in Japan,
they needed to cut and package their chicken parts to meet Japanese
consumer preferences. That change required substantial modification in
Gold Kist's operations. The alteration paid off: Gold Kist's Don Sands
reports, "In 1988, we shipped 5.3 million pounds of poultry to Japan, 9
million in 1989 and 12 million in 1990."

Identifying market-specific issues is easily accomplished by
contacting foreign government representatives in the United States.
Commercial posts of foreign governments located within embassies and
consulates can assist you in obtaining specific market and product
American Chambers of Commerce (AmChams) abroad can also be an
invaluable resource. As affiliates of the United States Chamber of
Commerce, 61 AmChams, located in 55 countries, collect and disseminate
extensive information on foreign markets. While membership fees are
usually required, the small investment can be worth it for the information
Another fundamental question to ask country-specific experts is what
market barriers, such as tariffs or import restrictions (sometimes referred
to as non-tariff barriers), exist for your product? Specialists at U.S.
Trade Representative (USTR) should be consulted on trade barriers.
Tariffs are taxes imposed on imported goods. In many cases, tariffs
raise the price of imported goods to the level of domestic goods. Often
tariffs become barriers to imported products because the amount of tax
imposed makes it impossible for exporters to profitably sell their products
in foreign markets.
Non-tariff barriers are laws or regulations that a country enacts to
protect domestic industries against foreign competition. Such non-tariff
barriers may include subsidies for domestic goods, import quotas or
regulations on import quality.
To determine the rate of duty, you will need to identify the
Harmonized Tariff section which corresponds to the product you wish to
export. Each country has its own schedule of duty rates corresponding to
the section of the Harmonized System of Tariff Nomenclature, I-XXII.


Once you know the largest, fastest growing and most penetrable markets
for your product or service, you must then define your export strategy.
Do not choose too many markets. For most small businesses, three
foreign markets will be more than enough, initially. You may want to test
one market and then move on to secondary markets as your "exportise"
develops. Focusing on regional, geographic clusters of countries can also
be more cost effective than choosing markets scattered around the globe.
After you have identified the best export markets, your next step will
be to determine the best way to distribute your product abroad. Chapter 3,
"Market Entry," discusses distribution methods.

Source :

Belanja baju Lebaran di mal yang hangat

oleh : Linda T. Silitonga

Draf surat keputusan bersama (SKB) lima menteri yang menetapkan suhu di mal dan toko minimal harus 25?C memicu protes pengelola mal, meski APPBI terkesan tidak keberatan atas wacana tersebut.

Sikap pengelola mal yang tak kompak menyikapi wacana penetapan minimal suhu ruangan pusat belanja dan toko, tampak terlihat ketika Asosiasi Pengelola Pusat Belanja Indonesia (APPBI) menggelar rapat penghematan energi.

Satu per satu wacana aturan pemerintah dikemukakan oleh empat pengurus APPBI yang memimpin rapat, dan selalu berakhir dengan kesepakatan yang bisa langsung disimpulkan sebagai sikap resmi asosiasi tersebut.

Namun, ketika persoalan sampai pada minimal suhu dalam ruangan, diskusi menjadi berkepanjangan. Satu direkturmal papan atas di kawasan Thamrin meninggalkan rapat.

Pengurus APPBI berusaha meyakinkan para anggotanya bahwa ketentuan itu sudah tertuang di dalam inpres, tapi penolakan terus berlanjut.

Tidak cuma dilontarkan pada rapat yang dihadiri pengelola lebih dari 50 mal, tapi juga melalui surat kepada pengurus pusat APPBI.

Begitu pentingkah suhu dalam ruangan?

Instruksi SKB lima menteri untuk mal dan toko modern
- Harus hemat energi listrik mpaling rendah 10%. Caranya:
- Memperlambat penggunaan listril dan mempercepat mematikan penggunaan energi 1 jam dari waktu buka tutup.
- Mengatur suhu ruangan ber-AC paling rendah 25 derajat Celcius
- Mematikan lampu atau billboard yang terpasang pada jam tertentu
- Menggunakan bank kapasitor
- Mematikan chiller AC 1-2 jam sebelum tutup, dan menyalakannya 1 jam setelah buka
- Menggunakan genset sekali seminggu pada pkl. 18.00 - pkl. 21.00
Sumber: Draf SKB lima menteri versi Agustus 2008

Jadi hangat

Ketika saya memasuki beberapa mal yang berbeda, memang ada suguhan suhu dalam ruangan yang tak sama antara satu mal dengan lainnya.

Ketika masuk ke mal luasnya kecil hingga menegah apalagi yang sudah berumur, suhu dalam ruangan memang memberikan kesejukan dalam kategori sedang-sedang saja.

Namun, begitu masuk ke mal yang menjanjikan kemewahan, suhu ruangan lebih dingin. Tidak jarang saking dinginnya dan pada kedatangan di saat mal sepi pengunjung dibuat menggigil dalam tempo 30 menit, dalam ruangan yang temperaturnya 21?C.

Bisa dibayangkan jika SKB yang ditandatangani Menteri Perdagangan, Menteri Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata, Menteri Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Menteri Dalam Negeri, dan Menteri Negara Badan Usaha Milik Negara menetapkan suhu ruangan minimal 25?C.

Tentu yang akan didapat ruangan di dalam mal yang 'hangat'.

SKB ditargetkan segera diluncurkan, dan masyarakat kemungkinan bisa berbelanja baju dan keperluan Lebaran pada September ini di mal atau toko modern yang 'hangat'.

Sebenarnya pengelola mal tidak perlu pesimistis gedungnya akan menjadi lebih hangat dengan menyetel alat pendingin di angka 25?C, karena mal di Singapura pun menyetel pada temperatur yang sama.

Sejak 2005, pemerintah di Negeri Singa, sudah menyadarkan pengelola mal dan took modern agar melakukan hemat energi, dan akhirnya disepakati untuk menyetel suhu dalam ruangan minimal 25?C.

Ketetapan tersebut ternyata tidak membuat konsumen Singapura dan negara lain kapok belanja di mal mereka.

Dinginnya ruangan tetap bisa dipertahankan meskipun suhu ada di angka sesuai peraturan.

Pengelola mal di Singapura mampu mempertahankan kesejukan dalam ruangan, karena desain gedung umumnya tidak banyak kacanya dan disokong kelembaban lingkungan sehingga tidak boros energi listrik.

Sebaliknya, di Indonesia banyak desain arsitek membuat mal yang wah dengan menampilkan kaca yang banyak, seolah menunjukkan ciri tropis dan penerangan alami.

Instruksi Presiden (Inpres) No. 2/2008 tentang Penghematan Energi dan Air memerintahkan penghematan energi melalui penerangan dan alat pendingin ruangan (AC), tanpa menyebutkan besaran suhu minimal dalam ruangan.

Aturan suhu minimal dalam gedung 25 ?C baru bisa ditemukan dalam Permen ESDM No.31/2005 tentang Tata Cara Pelaksanaan Penghematan Energi.

Adapun bangunan komersial harus mengatur suhu ruangan ber-air conditioner minimal 25 ?C.

Kenyataannya aturan yang dikeluarkan pada 2005 tidak dipatuhi. Buktinya, masih ada pusat perbelanjaan yang menyetel suhu ruangan di bawah 25 ?C.

SKB tampaknya mengadopsi aturan menteri ESDM. Cuma bedanya jika peraturan menteri ESDM tidak mencantumkan sanksi, di SKB bakal ada sanksi pemutusan aliran listrik oleh PLN bagi pengelola mal yang membandel.

Masalahnya, pembuatan aturan yang produktif kerap tak diikuti kemampuan penegakan hukum. Bisa jadi, SKB juga sekadar menjadi macan kertas. (

Mampukah bisnis parcel bangkit lagi?

oleh : Linda T. Silitonga

Penantian panjang Asosiasi Pengusaha Parcel Indonesia (APPI) berakhir, setelah Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) memberi lampu hijau bagi pejabat untuk menerima bingkisan Lebaran dengan senilai maksimal Rp 500.000.

Masih teringat jelas ketika Ketua APPI Fahira Fahmi Idris 'memboyong' sekitar 30 pengusaha bingkisan ke kantor KPK pada 2006. Mereka mempertanyakan kebijakan lembaga itu.

Dengan lantang Fahira mendesakkan pencabutan imbauan yang berbau larangan pemberian parcel bagi pejabat. Hal itu karena imbauan pada 2005 dan 2006, separuh dari perusahaan parcel bangkrut. Adapun omzet perusahaan bingkisan Lebaran yang masih bertahan bisa anjlok hingga 80%.

Meskipun KPK hanya membidik kalangan pejabat agar tidak menerima bingkisan yang dikhawatirkan tersisip makna 'ada udang di balik batu', kalangan swasta juga terseret untuk melakukan hal yang sama. Kenyataan ini yang membuat bisnis parcel makin morat-marit.

Upaya Fahira pada 2006 belum membuahkan hasil. Terbukti pada 2007, KPK tetap mengeluarkan imbauan sejenis.

Akan tetapi imbauan pada 2007 disikapi berbeda oleh APPI. Fahira tidak memboyong pengurus dan anggota lainnya untuk kembali mendatangi KPK. APPI seperti 'pasrah' dengan mengeluarkan imbauan kepada anggotanya agar mengalihkan usaha ke bidang lain seperti membuat kue, karena kondisi omzet yang tidak menjanjikan.

Sikap APPI kembali berubah, setelah membaca imbauan KPK yang terakhir dan dikeluarkan pada Maret 2008. Diperbolehkannya pejabat menerima bingkisan Lebaran meski dibatasi maksimal Rp 500.000, cukup membuat optimisme pengusaha parcel bangkit lagi. "Kami perkirakan tahun ini ada kenaikan omzet 50%."

Juru bicara KPK Johan Budi menjelaskan meskipun tahun ini pejabat diperbolehkan menerima parcel dengan batasan Rp 500.000, namun KPK tetap mewajibkan pejabat penerima bingkisan melaporkan hadiah itu paling lambat 30 hari kerja sejak bingkisan diterima.

Setelah mendapat laporan, KPK akan melakukan pemeriksaan apakah parcel nilainya sesuai dengan batasan nilai maksimal. Jika memenuhi persyaratan pejabat bisa mendapatkan kembali bingkisannya, jika dinilai lebih dari Rp 500.000 parcel akan diserahkan kepada negara.

KPK sebelumnya membandingkan dengan kebijakan di luar negeri, salah satunya di Malaysia. Pejabat di negeri jiran diperbolehkan menerima parcel dengan nilai maksimal 100 ringgit Malaysia atau sekitar Rp 280.000.

Johan menolak dihubungkan dengan anjloknya bisnis perusahaan parcel. "KPK tidak melarang orang membeli parcel. Bedakan antara menerima dan membeli. Silakan membeli parcel sebanyaknya dan beri kepada yang membutuhkan seperti fakir miskin. Kenapa pejabat yang dikasih, berarti ada sesuatu," ujar Johan.

Memang KPK mengeluarkan instruksi terkait dengan imbauan pejabat agar tidak menerima bingkisan Lebaran pada 4 tahun terakhir ada batasan maksimal Rp500.000 per bingkisan dan harus dilaporkan.

Ketentuan imbauan tidak mendapat bingkisan bagi pejabat dituangkan dalam bentuk siaran pers. Adapun dasar hukumnya mengacu pada UU No. 30/2002 tentang Komisi Pemberantasan Tindak Pidana Korupsi.

Isi laporan gratifikasi
- Nama dan alamat lengkap penerima dan pemberi gratifikasi
- Jabatan pegawai negeri atau penyelenggara negara
- Tempat dan waktu penerimaan gratifikasi
- Uraian jenis gratifikasi yang diterima
- Nilai gratifikasi yang diterima
Sumber: UU No. 30/2002

Dalam UU itu dijelaskan setiap pegawai negeri atau penyelenggara negara yang menerima gratifikasi (hadiah) wajib melaporkan kepada KPK. Selanjutnya KPK selambatnya 30 hari kerja sejak laporan diterima, wajib menetapkan status kepemilikan gratifikasi disertai pertimbangan.

Lebaran tinggal 2 minggu lagi, pengusaha parcel berharap bisnis yang lebih cerah pada tahun ini. Akankah bisnis bingkisan Lebaran bisa kembali terdongkrak? (

Cerita pedagang gorengan dan konversi elpiji

oleh : Rudi ariffianto & Diena Lestari

"Awalnya ya takut nyalain kompornya. Takut meledak, tetapi lama-lama ya biasa saja. Ternyata pakai elpiji lebih gampang dan irit."

Komentar sederhana muncul dari Gunayah, salah satu pedagang gorengan di satu sudut kota Malang, Jawa Timur.

Perempuan tengah baya itu sebelumnya tidak pernah mengenal kompor berbahan bakar elpiji ukuran 3 kg.

Dia selama puluhan tahun hanya mengenal kompor berbahan bakar minyak tanah sebagai alat penunjang dagangannya.

Setiap hari perempuan itu memang membutuhkan 4 liter minyak tanah untuk bahan bakar kompornya. Harga minyak tanah di Jawa Timur mencapai Rp3.500 per liter. Artinya, dia harus mengeluarkan uang setiap hari untuk minyak tanah sebesar Rp14.000.

Sejak pemerintah melun-curkan program konversi minyak tanah ke elpiji Mei 2006, figur pedagang seperti Gunayah yang menjadi sasaran pemerintah dan Pertamina untuk mempermulus program konversi itu. "Yah, pakai elpiji ternyata lebih hemat dibandingkan menggunakan minyak tanah," ujar perempuan usia 40-an itu sambil tersenyum.

Wajar pedagang kecil itu mengemukakan penggunaan elpiji lebih hemat. Bayangkan, dia hanya membutuhkan satu tabung elpiji ukuran 3 kg denga harga Rp13.500 untuk menggoreng dagangannya selama empat hari. Di sisi lain, Gunayah harus mengeluarkan Rp56.000 apabila dirinya menggunakan minyak tanah.

Secara teknis program konversi dari minyak tanah ke elpiji untuk masyarakat menengah ke bawah ini tidak terlalu menjadi masalah.

Yang perlu menjadi perhatian adalah bagaimana masyarakat yang sebagian besar adalah ibu rumah tangga dan pemilik usaha kecil ini memiliki keberanian untuk mencoba menggunakan elpiji.

Selain itu, kebiasaan menggunakan minyak tanah yang seakan sudah menjadi tradisi menahun, yang diharapkan sedikit demi sedikit bisa digeser menjadi kebiasaan menggunakan elpiji.

Namun, itu tidak mudah. Apalagi bahan bakar minyak tanah masih tersedia di pasar, belum ditarik 100% oleh pemerintah.

Terlepas dari semua itu, program konversi tetap harus dilihat sisi positifnya dan sudah pasti menjadi bagian dari proses sosialisasi yang harus terus menerus dilakukan Pertamina.

Hingga akhir tahun,program konversi diharapkan bisa menyerap 12,5 juta KK dan diharapkan menjadi 18 juta pada 2009 sejak program konversi itu diluncurkan.

Dari total 18 juta KK itu, sebanyak 17 juta merupakan program konversi untuk rumah tangga dan sisanya dari Usaha Kecil dan Menengah (UKM).

Volume minyak tanah yang ditarik 2008
Hingga Agustus 1,1 juta kl
Hingga akhir tahun 2,1 juta kl
Realisasi konversi elpiji PSO terhadap KK
Hingga 27 Agustus 7,3 juta kk
Target akhir tahun 12,5 juta kk
Target 2009 18 juta kk
Ket: kl=kiloliter, kk= kepala keluarga
Sumber: Pertamina


Harus diakui, program konversi elpiji ke minyak tanah juga tidak luput dari ulah spekulan untuk mempermainkan komoditas bersubsidi itu dan meraih keuntungan.

Apabila ada elpiji 3 kg bersubsidi dengan harga Rp13.500 per tabung ditemukan di pasar dengan harga Rp14.000-Rp15.000 bisa dikatakan masih wajar.

Menurut VP Komunikasi Pertamina Wisnuntoro, kenaikan harga elpiji 3 kg saat ini masih wajar karena adanya tambahan biaya transportasi dari stasiun pengisian Pertamina dengan SPBU atau agen.

Dia menjanjikan BUMN migas akan memberikan sanksi yang tegas kepada SPBU apabila harga komoditas itu mengalami kenaikan tidak wajar.

Di berbagai daerah belakangan ini muncul berbagai tindak penyimpangan pendistribusian elpiji 3 kg. Penyimpangan itu a.l. penjualan elpiji 3 kg dengan harga di atas harga eceran tertinggi yang ditetapkan Pertamina.

Berdasarkan pantauan Bisnis, di sekitar DKI Jakarta harga elpiji 3 kg sudah menembus Rp17.000 per tabung dari harga normal yang harnya berkisar Rp15.000 per tabung. Temuan penyimpangan lain adalah adanya pungutan dari aparat kelurahan dengan alasan biaya operasional yang besarnya antara Rp5.000 dan Rp10.000 per kepala.

Padahal, paket tabung dan kompor tersebut dibagikan secara cuma-cuma untuk masyarakat kurang mampu yang sebelumnya mengonsumsi minyak tanah untuk keperluan rumah tangga.

Paket tabung dan kompor juga dijual kepada pihak ketiga, yang di antaranya merupakan pangkalan elpiji.

"Kami mulai awal September menurunkan tim untuk verifikasi [pelaksanaan program konversi elpiji 3kg]," tutur Dirjen Minyak dan Gas Bumi Evita Herawati Legowo kepada Bisnis ketika ditanya langkah yang akan dilakukan pemerintah.

Terlepas dari adanya praktik di lapangan yang menyimpang, program konversi minyak tanah ke elpiji itu ditujukan bagi masyarakat bawah harus benar-benar sampai pada sasarannya.

Tentunya menjadi kewajiban pemerintah untuk tetap menjaga dan mengamankan program itu sehingga program itu mengena sesuai dengan tujuannya, yakni pemberian subsidi BBM hanya untuk masyarakat bawah!. (

Memangkas birokrasi dalam pengembangan Priok

oleh : Hery Lazuardi

Tanjung Priok kembali menjadi sorotan setelah muncul ancaman kepadatan arus barang atau kongesti di pelabuhan terbesar di Indonesia itu. Kekhawatiran itu diungkapkan oleh Menteri Perdagangan Mari Elka Pangestu pekan lalu saat meninjau kesiapan pelabuhan itu menghadapi lonjakan arus barang menjelang Lebaran.

Mendag memprihatinkan terhambatnya arus barang karena pelabuhan semakin dipadati barang ekspor dan impor, sementara lahan penumpukan sangat terbatas.

Kondisi ini menyebabkan pelayanan pelabuhan kian lambat karena ruang gerak bongkar muat terbatas. Jika tidak segera dicarikan solusinya, pelabuhan ini dikhawatirkan mengalami stagnasi sehingga mengacaukan distribusi barang di dalam negeri.

Ancaman kongesti bukan kejadian pertama di Priok. Namun, masalah ini semakin sering muncul seiring dengan pertumbuhan arus barang melalui pelabuhan itu. Selain keterbatasan lahan, manajemen arus barang di pelabuhan itu dinilai belum efisien. Sebagai contoh, kegiatan penarikan peti kemas impor dari lapangan penumpukan JICT (Jakarta International Container Terminal) ke lokasi pemeriksaan jalur merah atau behandle masih berjalan lamban. JICT merupakan operator terminal peti kemas terbesar di Tanjung Priok.

Persoalan lain yakni sebagian besar atau lebih dari 50% peti kemas yang telah melalui behandle belum juga dikeluarkan oleh pemiliknya sehingga berpotensi menambah kepadatan peti kemas di pelabuhan.

Berdasarkan informasi yang dihimpun Bisnis, penarikan peti kemas impor yang masuk kategori jalur merah dari JICT ke lokasi behandle Graha Segara bisa memakan waktu delapan hari sehingga lapangan penumpukan impor di JICT juga mengalami kepadatan.

Selain kondisi lapangan Graha Segara kini sangat padat, keterlambatan itu juga disebabkan oleh pihak JICT selaku operator yang bertanggung jawab atas kegiatan penarikan peti kemas behandle itu terkendala dengan keterbatasan peralatan dan trucking.

Di balik itu semua, masalah di Tanjung Priok tetap berujung pada keterbatasan lahan, terutama untuk penumpukan peti kemas. Sebagian lahan milik PT Pelabuhan Indonesia (Pelindo) II, pengelola Tanjung Priok, masih digunakan untuk pergudangan, pertokoan, perumahan, dan keperluan lain yang tidak berhubungan langsung dengan kepentingan pelabuhan.

Belum lagi, masalah manajemen kepelabuhanan, termasuk soal tarif dan pelayanan. Penolakan terhadap kenaikan tarif pelayanan peti kemas atau container handling charge (CHC) belum lama ini juga menunjukkan kinerja pengelola pelabuhan belum maksimal.

Pemerintah sebenarnya menyadari kesemrawutan Tanjung Priok. Salah satu upaya adalah memperbarui rencana induk atau master plan pelabuhan itu guna menetapkan prioritas pengembangan dalam jangka pendek, menengah, dan panjang.

Sayangnya, pemerintah seolah-olah masih setengah hati menjalankan master plan itu. Ini terlihat dari protes kalangan pengguna jasa kepelabuhanan terhadap sejumlah proyek di pelabuhan. Sebut saja misalnya, protes terhadap pembangunan tangki bahan bakar minyak (BBM) di dekat lapangan peti kemas dan pembongkaran gudang milik PT Pelayaran Nasional Indonesia (Pelni).

Rencana induk Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok
Jangka pendek (hingga 2012)
- Redesain pelabuhan sesuai perkembangan.
- Pembangunan terminal curah cair Koja 13 ha
- Pembangunan terminal CPO 4,7 ha
- Penataan Semenanjung Paliat.
- Penataan lapangan peti kemas
- Pembangunan & pendalaman dermaga
- Peningkatan jalan di area lini I.
- Penataan di area Dok Kodja Bahari III
Jangka menengah (2013-2017)
- Reklamasi Ancol Timur (sudah direklamasi seluas 500 ha)
- Pembangunan terminal serbaguna Ancol Timur
- Pemotongan breakwater sisi barat 9.964 m.
- Pembangunan breakwater 1.985 m2 untuk pintu masuk sisi barat
- Reklamasi sisi timur dan utara breakwater seluas 215 ha
- Reklamasi untuk dermaga peti kemas dan curah sepanjang 1.625 m
- Penataan lahan eks Dok Kodja Bahari galangan II seluas 14,64 ha
- Penataan lahan PT Sarpindo seluas 3,74 ha
- Pengembangan Port Logistic Area di Kali Baru tahap I seluas 32 ha
- Pengembangan office centre seluas 8.000 m2
Jangka panjang (2018-2050)
- Reklamasi lahan utara breakwater seluas 265 ha
- Penambahan dermaga peti kemas dan curah seluas 5.310 m2
- Tambahan dermaga multipurpose dan terminal penumpang 2.300 m
- Reklamasi lahan Kalibaru seluas 55 ha
- Pembongkaran breakwater sisi utara (dam timur) sepanjang 500 m
- Pembangunan breakwater baru sepanjang 610 m
- Pembangunan Port Logistic Area di Kali Baru Tahap II seluas 112 ha
Sumber: Pelindo II, diolah

Lahan TNI AD

Di sisi lain, proyek pengembangan pelabuhan, seperti relokasi kompleks TNI AD (Yong Ang Air, Beng Pus Ang, dan Koterm A) masih terhambat. Padahal, lahan tersebut sangat potensial untuk pengembangan pelabuhan, terutama untuk terminal bongkar muat dan lapangan penumpukan peti kemas yang sangat dibutuhkan Priok.

Wakil pemegang saham pemerintah di Pelindo II disebut-sebut menolak penggunaan lahan itu, meski petinggi TNI AD setuju satuannya di Priok direlokasi ke tempat lain.

Hambatan birokrasi seperti ini tentu saja tidak sehat bagi pengembangan Tanjung Priok yang kian mendesak. Oleh sebab itu, pemerintah harus turun tangan untuk mempercepat pembenahan Tanjung Priok. Campur tangan dibutuhkan apabila suatu proyek krusial terhambat tanpa alasan yang jelas.

Langkah ini pernah dilakukan oleh Wakil Presiden Jusuf Kalla dalam proyek pembangunan car terminal di Tanjung Priok.

Proyek yang pembangunannya tertunda berkali-kali itu akhirnya dapat diselesaikan sesuai target, setelah Wapres memangkas birokrasi dan memberikan tenggat waktu penyelesaian proyek. (k1) (

A Model Management Approach to Business Process Reengineering

Levent V. Orman
Cornell University
Malott Hall
Ethaca, NY 14853-4201

Business Process Reengineering is the popular term for reoptimization of organizational processes and structures following the introduction of new information technologies into an organization. There is considerable anecdotal evidence that even small changes in the use of information technology (IT) in an organization may require major restructuring of the organization to take full advantage of the efficiencies created by the technology [3, 11, 12, 13]. Conversely, there is also considerable evidence that without major restructuring, the introduction of IT may not produce savings needed even to justify the investment [33, 36]. Although the evidence for organizational restructuring to accompany technological change is strong, there is much less agreement on exactly what organizational changes are needed to take full advantage of the technology. The controversy includes both the macro and micro level changes. At the macro level, the most salient issue is the change in the degree of centralization of decision making, with related questions about the depth and shape of organizational hierarchies. At the micro level, the most salient issue is the job definition and content, with related questions about communication patterns, job satisfaction of employees, and skill requirements. There is a remarkable degree of disagreement on the impact of IT on organizations in all of these areas. IT may be expected to increase centralization because it increases the information processing capacity of managers, hence, allowing them to centralize more decisions [35, 42, 43]. IT may also be expected to decrease centralization because it reduces the cost of communication and coordination, and allows decisions to be delegated [6, 20, 31, 42]. IT may be expected to decrease the depth of organizational hierarchies since it automates some of the middle management functions, facilitating the movement of information through the organizational hierarchy [7, 42]. IT may also increase the depth of hierarchies by reducing the delays and distortions introduced by the movement of information through the hierarchy [5, 35]. IT may be expected to reduce job satisfaction and diminish skill requirements by routinizing work, by subdividing work into small, highly specialized and repetitive tasks, and by subjecting humans to machine control [6, 42, 43]. IT may also be expected to increase job satisfaction, enrich jobs, and replace low level clerical jobs with high-skill professional jobs by automating the most mundane tasks [2, 23, 43].

One explanation for the inconsistency of the empirical evidence is that the impact of IT on organizations is nondeterministic. IT creates options for the organization, and the organizational choice among those options creates the variation in observed outcomes [10, 28, 43]. This explanation is valuable in establishing the complexity of the interactions, but not very useful in prediction or prescription, and gives no guidance to the implementor of IT or Business Process Reengineering. A second explanation for the inconsistency of the empirical evidence is in the treatment of IT as one specific factor. In fact, IT contains many diverse technologies that can be used to automate a variety of organizational processes. What gets automated determines what would be the optimum structure for the remaining processes! Clearly, automating clerical tasks would have a different impact on the organization than building Executive Support Systems for the top management [24, 37]. This explanation is valuable in narrowing the research question, and providing a general framework for prediction and prescription. However, general macro level prescriptions about organizational structures are not always easy to translate into specific micro level changes in organizational processes even when those prescriptions are available [21], and further refinement of the prescriptions is often necessary.

This article takes a prescriptive and analytical approach to Business Process processes, and to provide guidance and analytical tools for the reengineering efforts. In the process, a number of organizational issues are explained and quantified, including the concentrate power on top, and may create employee alienation at the bottom, the need for business process reengineering after the introduction of IT, the exact conditions under which IT may and should lead to more or less centralized structures, and the exact location and nature of those structural changes. An information processing-decision making paradigm of organizations is adopted [14, 17, 38, 40]. Organizational processes are viewed as collections of decision models within the general framework of organizational information processing. Each decision model is identified by a type of decision which is its output, and contains a sequence of information processing tasks [26]. The information processing tasks are the smallest identifiable units of analysis, and their optimum arrangement is the critical design variable determining the efficiency of the resulting structures. The structures will be evaluated in terms of the cost of information processing, and the cost of communication among tasks [21]. Both criteria are heavily influenced by the arrangement of tasks, since those arrangements determine what tasks need to communicate with each other, the direction and the content of communication, and the possible sharing of tasks among models.

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